ChinaKnowledge.de -
An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Tongmeng xuzhi 童蒙須知

Nov 19, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald

Tongmeng xuzhi 童蒙須知 "What must be known about primary education", also called Zhuzi tongmeng xuzhi 朱子童蒙須知, is a treatise on education written by the Neo-Confucian master Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200) during the Southern Song period 南宋 (1127-1279).

The short book describes how boys learned to behave in different social contexts, how to clothe, to speak and to walk, to clean the home and order their belongings, and of course, to read and write. The Tongmeng xuzhi is a basic text for pupils and provides them help in daily life and to prepare for the "greater studies" (daxue 大學). They have to learn the "three arrivals" (sandao 三到), namely that of the heart, that of the eyes, and that of the mouth. Of all these, the "arrival of the heart" is the most important, because if one cannot concentrate on one's job, the eyes will not perceive the crucial matters of a text, and the mouth will not be able to express the fundamental meaning when reciting a text. The same is valid for writing which has to be learnt with greatest care, and conversation which has to start, for a young boy, in a modest, humble and serene way, with a low voice and without joking.

The book is included in the series Dongtingyutang kanshu 東聽雨堂刊書.

Sources:
Chen Anmin 陳安民, Zhou Xin 周欣 (2013). "Zhu Xi mengxue jiaocai Tongmeng xuzhi de jiazhi yanjiu 朱熹蒙學教材《童蒙須知》的價值探究", Wenshi bolan (Lilun) 文史博覽(理論), 2013 (11).
Jiang Zhengming 蔣正明 (1993). "Tongmeng xuzhi 童蒙須知", in Zhongguo xiaoxue jiaoxue baike quanshu 中國小學教學百科全書, Vol. Pinde 品德卷 (Shenyang: Shenyang chubanshe), 232.
Jiaoyu da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 《教育大辭典》編纂委員會, ed. (1991). Jiaoyu da cidian 教育大辭典, Part 8, Zhongguo gudai jiaoyu shi 中國古代教育史 (Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 143.
Liang Zhongyi 梁忠義, Che Wenbo 車文博, ed. (1989). Shiyong jiaoyu cidian 實用教育辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe) 630.
Su Junshuai 蘇軍帥 (2016). "Tongmeng xuzhi zhong rujia mengxue linian kuitan 《童蒙須知》中儒家蒙學理念窺探", Hubei Jingji Xueyuan xuebao (Renwen shehui kexue ban) 湖北經濟學院學報(人文社會科學版). 2016 (7).
Wang Zhaoxian 王兆先, Cheng Changzhu 程昌柱, Gao Xuegui 高學貴, ed. (1992). Jiating jiaoyu cidian 家庭教育辭典 (Nanjing: Nanjing daxue chubanshe), 114.
Zhang Liangcai 張良才 (1997). "Tongmeng xuzhi 童蒙須知", in Men Kui 門巋, Zhang Yanjin 張燕瑾, ed. Zhonghua guocui da cidian 中華國粹大辭典 (Xianggang: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi), 281.