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Chinese Literature
Kongzi jiayu 孔子家語 "The School Sayings of Confucius"

The Kongzi jiayu 孔子家語 "School Sayings of Confucius" is a collection of statements by Confucius compiled by the Wei period 曹魏 (220-265) scholar Wang Su 王肅 (195-256 CE). The 10 juan "scrolls" long book was written as a kind of supplement to the "Confucian Analects" Lunyu 論語. Wang Su was an expert in the Confucian Classics and their commentaries. The Kongzi jiayu also contains a lot of material on rituals, like marriage, funeral, offering and temple rites described or mentioned in books like the Lunyu, Zuozhuan 左傳, Guoyu 國語, Xunzi 荀子 and Da Dai Liji 大戴禮記. He directly associated these rituals with the name of Confucius and served himself of these sources to attack the Confucian commentator Zheng Xuan 鄭玄. It can be seen in many quotations that Wang Su intentionally ascribed the statements to Confucian persons or Confucius himself, in order to prove the wrongness of Zheng's theories. He affirmed to have been supported by Confucius' descendant Kong Meng 孔猛. Wang Su's arguments against Zheng Xuan were also assembled in his book Shengzhenglun 聖證論, which is only perserved in fragments. The teachings of Wang (Wangxue 王學) are opposed to the teachings of Zheng (Zhengxue 鄭學). Inspite of this ideological purpose, the Kongzi jiayu has preserved some sources otherwise long since lost. The imperial bibliography Yiwenzhi 藝文志 in the official dynastic history Hanshu 漢書 a book Kongzi jiayu mentioned, with a length of 27 juan. The commentary says that it was compiled by disciples of Confucius. It was lost at the end of the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE) and has virtually been replaced by Wang Su's book, inspite of the improper intention of the author. The Kongzi jiayu was rarely available during the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) , and the commentator He Mengchun 何孟春 admitted that he had never seen a complete "original" version. There was a version possessed by a Master Xu 徐 from Fujian, and a version in the hands of Mao Jin 毛晉. In the Xu version, which is lost today, a lot of pages were missing, and the text of both versions was different. The Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Sun Zhizu 孫志祖 has written a commentary, the Jiayu shuzheng 家語疏證.
The Kongzi jiayu is included in the collectanea Baizi quanshu 百子全書, Ershierzi 二十二子 and Sibu beiyao 四部備要. In 1990 and 1991, the Shanghai guji press 上海古籍出版社 published reprints of the Ming version, based on a Song period print.
The Kongzi jiayu has been partially translated by Robert Paul Kramers (1950), K'ung Tzu Chia Yu: The School Sayings of Confucius, Leiden: Brill.

Source: Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典, vol. 2, p. 1547. Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe.

1. 相魯 Xiang Lu Being councillor in Lu
2. 始誅 Shizhu First punishment
3. 王言解 Wangyan Royal words explained
4. 大昏解 Dahun Explanation of the great marriage rite
5. 儒行解 Ruxing The conduct of a Confucian explained
6. 問禮 Wenli Questioning about the rites
7. 五儀解 Wuyi Explanation of the five grades
8. 觀思 Guansi Giving rein to thoughts
9. 三恕 Sanxu Three ways of reciprocity
10. 好生 Haosheng Loving life
11. 觀周 Guan Zhou Looking at the Duke of Zhou
12. 弟子行 Dizixing The comportment of disciples
13. 賢君 Xianjun Worthies and rulers
14. 辯政 Bianzheng Disputes about politics
15. 六本 Liuti The six roots
16. 辯物 Bianwu Disputes about things
17. 哀公問政 Aigong wen zheng Duke Ai asked about government
18. 顏回 Yan Hui Disciple Yan Hui
19. 子路初見 Zilu chu jian The first audience of Disciple Zilu
20. 在厄 Zai wei In danger
21. 入官 Ruguan Entering office
22. 困誓 Kunshi Oaths in difficulties
23. 五帝德 Wudide The virtues of the Five Emperors
24. 五帝 Wudi The Five Emperors
25. 執轡 Zhipei Holding the reins
26. 本命解 Benxing Explanation to the Proper Fate
27. 論禮 Lunli About rituals
28. 觀鄉射 Guanxiangshe Regarding the district archery contest
29. 郊問 Jiaowen Questions to the border (sacrifice)
30. 五刑解 Wuxing Explanation of the five punishments
31. 刑政 Xingzheng The politics of punishment
32. 禮運 Liyun The conveyance of rites
33. 冠頌 Guansong A hymn for the capping ceremony
34. 廟制 Miaozhi The procedures in the ancestral temple
35. 辯樂解 Bianyue Explanation to Disputed about Music
36. 問玉 Wenyu Questions to jade
37. 屈節解 Qujie Explanation to Withdrawal in Sparingness
38. 七十二弟子解 Qishier dizi Explanation to the Seventy-two Disciples
39. 本姓解 Benxing Explanation to the Proper Family Name
40. 終記解 Zhongji Explanation to the Records of the End
41. 正論解 Zhenglun Explanation to Discussions about Correctness
42. 曲禮子貢問 Quli Zigong wen Zigong's questions about the Summary of the Rites
43. 子貢問 Zigong wen Disciple Zigong's questions
44. 公西赤問 Gongxi Chi wen The questions of Disciple Gongxi Chi
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July 24, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail