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Leshi 泐史

Jul 12, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

Leshi 泐史 "Histories of [the region] of Le [Dai: Lü]", short for Mengle gushi shu 勐泐古事書 "The book(s) of the affairs in the antiquity [of the region] of Mengle", is a general term for a series of books dealing with the history of the region of Sipsongpanna (Chinese: Xishuangbanna 西雙版納) in the southern tip of the province of Yunnan. In its chronological sequence the histories follow the traditional calendar of the Dai 傣 (Tai Lü) people living in this region. The primary authors are unknown.

The events described in the various original versions deal with the dominant ruling families and the local chieftains (transcribed into Chinese as zhaopian 召片). Family registers (pudie 譜牒) are thus an integral part of these chronicles. The stories told about the oldest times are not really reliable, and contents can only be historically relied on from around the year 1400 on. There are several hand-written manuscripts extant, written in Dai language and differing from each other in content, but only concerning some minor points (for example, dates). The date of composition is not clear, but the books are certainly not older than from the Ming period 明 (1368-1644).

There is a series of versions translated into modern Chinese. The first is a translation by Li Fuyi 李拂一 (1901-2010), published in 1947, which covers the years from 1180 to 1864. In the same year Li published a critical supplement called Cheli xuanwei shixi kaoding 車里宣慰世系考訂 "Investigations and corrections to the genealogies of the pacification office of Cheli [the modern city of Jinghong 景洪]". The third version is the Cheli difang zhi 車里地方志 "Local gazetteer of Cheli" translated and edited in 1964 by Fu Maoji 傅懋勣 (1911-1988) and Dao Zhongqiang 刀忠強 and which covers the years from 1568 to 1864. The years from 1180 to 1497 are covered by the supplement Bazhen yihou gedai de lishi jizai 叭真以後各代的歷史記載 "All historic records of the years after [king] Bazhen (fl. 1190)" which was published by Dao Guodong 刀國棟 (1932-2017), Wu Yutao 吳玉濤, and Zhang Yaqing 張亞慶. Zhang Gongjin 張公瑾 edited the book Xishuangbanna Daizu jinbainian dashiji – Xu Leshi 西雙版納帶傣族近百年大事記—續泐史 "Great events in the history of the Tai people in Sipsongbanna – A sequel to the Leshi", covering the years between 1844 and 1950.

The last three mentioned are incorporated into a volume about Dai culture, published in 1982 and called Xishuangbanna Daizu shehui diaocha ziliao congkan. 3 西雙版納帶傣族社會調查資料叢刊.第三輯 "Series of materials concerning research on social [history] of the Tai people in Sipsongbanna 3rd series".

Sources:
Fang Guoyu 方國瑜 (1983). "Xishuangbanna Leshi gaishuo 西雙版納“泐史”該說", Sixiang zhanxian 思想戰綫, 1983 (6).
Gao Lishi 高力士 (1992). "Leshi 泐史", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 2, 543.
Gao Wende 高文德, ed. (1995). Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 1138.
Huang Ming 黃鳴, ed. (1990). Jianming minzu cidian 簡明民族詞典 (Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe), 272.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 432.
Zhu Depu 朱德普 (1986). "Mingdai Hanwen shiji ji Cheli xuanweishi shixi ewu kaobian: Jiaobu Leshi zhaji zhi yi 明代漢文史籍記車里宣慰使世系訛誤考辨——校補《泐史》札記之一", Yunnan Minzu Xueyuan xuebao 雲南民族學院學報, 1986 (12).
Zhu Depu 朱德普 (1987). "Jiekai she long fa mi li de mian sha: Jiaobu Leshi zhaji zhi si 揭开奢隴法迷離的面紗——校補《泐史》札記之四", Yunnan Minzu Xueyuan xuebao 雲南民族學院學報, 1987 (12).
Zhu Depu 朱德普 (1987a). "Leshi dao ba xian shishi bianzheng: Jiaobu Leshi zhaji zhi er 《泐史》刀霸羡史實辨正——校補《泐史》札記之三", Sixiang zhanxian 思想戰綫, 1987 (5).
Zhu Depu 朱德普 (1988). "Cheli yu Dongwu wangchao lianyin shi zhiyi: Jiaobu Leshi zhaji zhi wu 車里與洞吾王朝聯姻事質疑——校補《泐史》札記之五", Yunnan Minzu Xueyuan xuebao 雲南民族學院學報, 1988 (9).
Zhu Depu 朱德普 (1989). "Leshi zhi zai bianshi 《泐史》之再辨識", Sixiang zhanxian 思想戰綫, 1989 (5).
Zhu Depu 朱德普 (1993). "Shenhua chuanshuo ru Leshi zhi bianxi 神話傳説入《泐史》之辨析", Yunnan Jiaoyu Xueyuan xuebao 雲南教育學院學報, 1993 (8).