The Four Categories of Literature
Masters and Philosophers
Anthologies and Collected Works
Suishu jingji zhi 隋書經籍志 is a bibliography included in the official dynastic history Suishu 隋書 as one of the treatises (zhi 志). It was compiled on imperial order between 641 and 656 by a team under the supervision of Wei Zheng 魏徵. The compilers made use of older, now lost bibliographies, like the Sui daye zhengyu shumu lu 隋大業正御書目錄 from the Sui period 隋 (581-618), or Ruan Xiaoxu's 阮孝緒 Qilu 七錄 from the Liang period 梁 (502-557).
The Jingji zhi lists 3,127 books available in the palace libraries, with a physical volume of 36,708 juan "scrolls". The books are arranged in 4 categories (sibu 四部). Of the books listed, 1,064 are indicated as lost. Including the lost books, a total of 4,191 texts is listed. The four categories are the Confucian Classics (jing 經), histories (shi 史), "masters and philosophers" (zi 子), and belles-lettres (ji 集). They are divided into 40 sub-categories.
The Confucian Classics include the Yijing 易經, Shijing 詩經 , Shangshu 尚書, Liji 禮記, Yueji (books on ritual music), Chunqiu 春秋, Xiaojing 孝經, Lunyu 論語, apocryphal texts (chenwei 讖緯), and texts of minor learning (xiaoxue 小學), as well as related writings.
The histories are divided into the types of official dynastic histories (zhengshi 正史), histories of antiquity (gushi 古史), miscellaneous histories (zashi 雜史), histories of competitive states in China (bashi 霸史), imperial diaries (qijuzhu 起居注), texts about "ancient affairs" (jiushi 舊事), books on state offices (zhiguan 職官), books on state rituals (yizhu 儀注), books on law (faxing 刑法), miscellaneous biographies (zazhuan 雜傳), geographies (dili 地理), various notes (puxi 譜系), and notes (pulu 簿錄).
The masters are divided into the types of Confucians (ru 儒), Daoists (dao 道), legalists (fa 法), sophists (ming 名), Mohists (mo 墨), political advisors (zongheng 縱橫), miscellaneous (za 雜), agronomical texts (nong 農), storytellers (xiaoshuo 小說), military treatises (bing 兵), astronomical texts (tianwen 天文), mathematical and divinatory texts (lishu 歷數), texts on the five progresses (wuxing 五行), and medical texts (yifang 醫方).
The category of belles-lettres is divided into texts on the southern poetry (Chuci 楚辭), individual belles-lettres (bieji 別集), and collective belles-lettres (zongji 總集).
Texts on Buddhism and some religious texts on Daoism are added in an appendix, but only with a statement about the number of writings and not a detailed listing of the books.
For each book, the author (including time and official position) and the size (in juan) is indicated, and for some books, remarks are provided, like the status of the preservation or the authenticity of the content. Each category and sub-category is accompanied by an introduction describing the particular school or type of text, and the bibliography itself is headed by a general introduction. The categorisation of literature in the Suishu jingji zhi was the basic model for virtually all later bibliographies.
The Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Zhang Zongyuan 章宗源 has compiled a critical edition of the Jingji zhi, the Suishu jingji kaozheng 隋書經籍考證, published in 1877, the same did Yao Zhenzong 姚振宗 in 1897 with the Suishu jingji zhi kaozheng 隋書經籍志考證). In 1955, the Shangwu yinshuguan press 商務印書館 published imperial bibliographies of ten official dynastic histories, the Shishi yiwen jingji zhi 十史藝文經籍志 (including the bibliographic treatises of the Hanshu 漢書, Suishu, Jiutangshu 舊唐書, Xintangshu 新唐書, Songshi 宋史, Liaoshi 遼史, Jinshi 金史, Yuanshi 元史, Mingshi 明史 and Qingshigao 清史稿). The Suishu bibliography included in this book has been revised on the base of the investigations of Zhang Zonguyan and Yao Zhenzong. Another study on the Suishu jingshi zhi has been made by Zhang Pengyi 張鵬一, published in 1904 (Suishu jingji zhi bu shumu 隋書經籍志補書目).
1. 六藝經緯 Liuyi jingwei The six classical and paraclassic arts, 627 writings
1.1 易 Yi The Changes, 70 books
1.2 尚 Shang The Documents, 32 books
1.3 詩 Shi The Songs, 41 books
1.4 禮 Li The Rites, 137 books
1.5 樂 Yue The Music, 44 books
1.6 春秋 Chunqiu Spring and Autumn, 104 books
1.7 孝經 Xiaojing The Filial Piety, 20 books
1.8 論語 Lunyu The Analects, Erya, lexicography, Confucian treatises and books on the Five Classics, 74 books
1.9 異說 Yishuo Apocryphal writings and tales of the strange, 13 books
1.10. 小學 Xiaoxue Lexicography and primary learning, 111 books
2. 史 Shi Historiography, 117 writings
2.1 正史 Zhengshi Dynastic and universal histories, 67 books
2.2 古史 Gushi Histories of antiquity, 34 books
2.3 雜史 Zashi Miscellaneous histories, 72 books
2.4 霸史 Bashi Histories of other states in China, 27 books
2.5 起居注 Qijuzhu Imperial diaries, 44 books
2.6 舊事 Jishi Writings on ancient affairs, 25 books
2.7 職官 Zhiguan Writings on state offices, 27 books
2.8 儀注 Yizhu Writings on state rituals, 59 books
2.9 刑法 Xingfa Writings on penal law, 35 books
2.10 雜傳 Zazhuan Miscellaneous biographies, 217 books
2.11 地理 Dili Writings on administrative geography, 139 books
2.12 譜系 Puxi Family registers, 41 books
2.13 簿錄 Pulu Notes on administrational affairs, 30 books
3. 子 Zi Masters and philosophers, 853 writings
3.1 儒 Ru Confucian treatises, 62 books
3.2 道 Dao Daoist treatises, 78 books
3.3 法 Fa Legalist treatises, 6 books
3.4 名 Ming Dialectician treatises, 4 books
3.5 墨 Mo Mohist treatises, 3 books
3.6 從橫 Zongheng Coalition advisers, 2 books
3.7 雜 Za Miscellaneous treatises, 97 books
3.8 農 Nong Agricultural treatises, 5 books
3.9 小說 Xiaoshuo Storytellers, 25 books
3.10 兵 Bing Military treatises, 133 books
3.11 天文 Tianwen Astronomical treatises, 97 books
3.11 曆數 Lishu Calendric and mathematical treatises
3.12 五行 Wuxing Writings on the Five Processes and cosmic correlations, 272 books
3.13 醫方 Yifang Medical and pharmaceutical treatises, 256 books
4. 集 Ji Belles-Lettres, 554 writings
4.1 楚辭 Chuci Poetry from the South, 10 books
4.2 別集 Bieji Individual collected writings, 437 books
4.3 總集 Zongji Collective writings and anthologies, 107 books
5. 道經 Daojing Daoist writings, 377 writings, no titles provided
5.1 經戒 Jingjie Classics and writings on fasting, 301 books
5.2 餌服 Erfu Writings on diet, 46 books
5.3 房中 Fangzhong The art of the bedchamber, 13 books
5.4 符錄 Fulu Writings on talisman, 17 books
6. 佛經 Fojing Buddhist writings, 1950 writings, no titles provided
6.1 大乘經 Dasheng jing Mahāyāna sūtras, 617 books, of these 558 sūtras (jing 經) and 59 commentaries (shu 疏)
6.2 小乘經 Xiaosheng jing Hinayāna sūtras, 487 books
6.3 雜經 Zajing Miscellaneous sūtras, 380 books
6.4 雜疑經 Zayi jing Miscellaneous sūtras of doubtful origin, 172 books
6.5 大乘律 Dasheng lü Mahāyāna vinayas, 52 books
6.6 小乘律 Xiaosheng lü Hinayāna vinayas, 80 books, of these 77 vinayas (lü 律) and 2 commentaries (jiangshu 講疏)
6.7 雜律 Zalü Miscellaneous vinayas, 27 books
6.8 大乘論 Dasheng lun Mahāyāna śāstras, 141 books, of these 30 śāstras (lun 論) and 15 commentaries (shu 疏)
6.9 小乘論 Xiaosheng lun Hinayāna śāstras, 567 books of these 21 śāstras and 10 commentaries (jiangshu 講疏)
6.10 雜論 Zalun Miscellaneous śāstras, 51 books, of these 32 śāstras and 9 commentaries (jiangshu)
Source: Meng Zhaojin 孟昭晉 (1992), "Suishu jingji zhi 隋書經籍志", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Tushuguanxue qingbaoxue dang'anxue 圖書館學,情報學,檔案學 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), p. 406.
February 5, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
Chinese Literature over time