Sima Shang 司馬尚 was a general of the state of Zhao 趙 during the very late Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE). In 229 he and Li Mu 李牧 took over the defence of the capital of Zhao, Handan 邯鄲 (today in Hebei) against the mighty army of Qin. Yet the Qin commander, Wang Jian 王翦, bribed Guo Kai 郭開, a minion of the king of Zhao. Guo slandered the two generals by accusing them of planning a rebellion. Li Mu was executed, and Sima Shang dismissed. Instead of these two, the unexperienced officers Zhao Cong 趙蔥 and Yan Ju 顏聚 were entrusted with the defence command, and shortly later, Handan fell, and the state of Zhao was extinguished.