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Pingding Zhunga'er fanglüe 平定準噶爾方略

May 1, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald

(Qinding) Pingding Zhunga'er fanglüe (欽定)平定準噶爾方略 "(Imperially endorsed) Military annals of pacification of the Dzunghars" is an official history history of the conquest of Dzungharia by the Qing dynasty 清 (1644-1911) in the 18th century. The 171-juan long book was compiled on imperial order under the supervision of Fuheng 傅恒 (?-1770), brother-in-law of the Qianlong Emperor 乾隆帝 (r. 1736-1795) and highest commander of the last campaign.

The first draft of book was finished in 1755 after 15 years of compilation, mainly taken over by Laiboo 來保 (1681-1764), yet the final version was only submitted to the throne in 1770. It narrates the raising power of Cėwang arabdan (Tsewang Rabtan) 策妄阿拉布坦 (1643-1727), Galdan čering (Galdan Tsereng) 噶爾丹策凌 (d. 1745), and Amursana 阿睦爾撒納 (1720-1757). It took the Qing government half a century to pacify that region. Only with Amursana's death in 1757 Dzungharia was wholly incorporated into the Qing empire, a task that the Kangxi Emperor 康熙帝 (r. 1662-1722) once had begun with his personally conducted campaigns against Galdan.

The military annals also include campaigns against the Muslim city states in the Tarim Basin. The whole book is divided into a first collection (Qianbian 前編) of 54 juan, a central collection (Zhengbian 正編) of 85 juan and a supplementary collection (Xubian 續编) of 33 juan. The first part begins in 1700 with the campaigns to conquer Qinghai and ends in 1753 with the appointment of Yungcang 永常 (d. 1755) as governor-general of the border region Shaan-Gan 陝甘 in the west. It describes the origin of the Dzunghar problem and the first measures taken against the growing power of the Dzunghar federation.

The second parts begins with the discharge of the lord (tayiǰi 台吉) of the Dörbed 都爾伯特, Cėring 策凌, from command and describes the war against Amursana and the khojas (Chinese: hezhuomu 和卓木, Manju: hojo) of Kashgar, Burhān ad-Dīn (d. 1759; Chinese: Huojizhan 霍集占, Manchu: Buranidun) and Khwāja-i Jahān (d. 1759; Chinese: Boluonidun 波羅尼都, Manchu: Hojijan).

The third part begins in 1760 and ends with Mingšui's 明瑞 (d. 1768) campaigns against the the Muslims of Uš and their submission. It also describes the transformation of Dzungharia into the territory of Xinjiang, the new borderlands, with the outpost of Ili.

The book is included in the series Siku quanshu 四庫全書.

Sources:
Danzhu Angbeng 丹珠昂奔, ed. (2003). Zangzu da cidian 藏族大辭典 (Lanzhou: Gansu renmin chubanshe), 577.
Gao Wende 高文德, ed. (1995). Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 505.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 914.
Pu Kaifu 蒲開夫, Zhu Yifan 朱一凡, Li Xingli 李行力, ed. (2006). Xinjiang baike zhishi cidian 新疆百科知識辭典 (Lanzhou: Gansu renmin chubanshe), 186.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 177.
Xinjiang baike quanshu bianzu weiyuanhui 《新疆百科全書》編纂委員會, ed. (2002). Xinjiang baike quanshu 新疆百科全書 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), 90.