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Xiaoxue gouchen 小學鉤沉

May 28, 2012 © Ulrich Theobald
Xiaoxue gouchen 小學鉤沉

Xiaoxue gouchen 小學鉤沉 "Rediscovering lost ancient books on minor learning" is a series of collectanea (congshu 叢書) concering elementary learning compiled by the mid-Qing-period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Ren Dachun 任大椿 (1738-1789) and commented on by Wang Niansun 王念孫 (1749-1832).

Ren Dachun, courtesy name Youzhi 幼植, style Zhitian 芝田, hailed from Xinghua 興化, Jiangsu, and took part in the compilation of the imperial series Siku quanshu 四庫全書. The collection Xiaoxue gouchen includes 44 texts with a total length of 19 juan. The texts are not easily to be found in other collections and that are for a great part only surviving in fragments assembled from quotations in ancient encyclopaedias. This is particularly true for dictionaries from the Han 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE), Wei 曹魏 (220-265) and Southern Dynasties 南朝 (420~589) periods that received only minor attention by traditional Chinese scholars.

The books of the first twelve juan have been commented on by Wang Niansun, while the commentaries to the books of the last seven juan were arranged by Wang Tingzhen 汪廷珍 (1757-1827).

The collection was first printed in 1817 and republishied in 1884. At least part of the books is also included in the series Xiaoxue leibian 小學類編 (part Fubian 附編), Cuilangganguan congshu 翠瑯玕館叢書, and Yuyuan congshu 芋園叢書.

There is a sequel called Xiaoxue gouchen xubian 小學鉤沉續編. This series of 8 juan length served as a supplement, but also rectifies some texts of Ren Dachun's series. The Xubian was compiled by Gu Zhenfu 顧震福 (b. 1869 or 1872-after 1936), courtesy name Zhuhou 竹侯, who hailed from Shanyang 山陽 (modern Huai'an 淮安, Jiangsu).

It is interesting to note that some of the supplementary paragraphs included in Gu Zhenfu's edition were to be found in books only preserved in Japan. The Xubian was printed in 1892.

Table 1. The series Xiaoxue gouchen 小學鉤沉
(Qing) 任大椿 Ren Dachun (comp.); 王念孫 Wang Niansun, 汪廷珍 (comm.)
1817 edition by Wang Yanzhen from Shanyang 山陽汪延珍 (reproducing a copy of Master Wang from Gaoyou 高郵王氏); 1884 edition of Master Long 龍氏; edition from the Guangxu reign-period by Hubei Chongwen Shuju 湖北崇文書局
書名, length in juan Title Author(s)
倉頡篇
(附)倉頡訓詁
倉頡解詁
Cangjiepian
app. Cangjie xungu
Cangjie jiegu
(Qin) NN
三倉
(附)三倉訓詁
三倉解詁
Sancang
app. Sancang xungu
Sancang jiegu
(Qin) NN
凡將篇 Fanjiangpian (Han) 司馬相如 Sima Xiangru
古文官書
(附)古文奇字
郭訓古文奇字
Gu wenguan shu
Guwen qizi
Guo xun Guwen qizi
(Han) 衛宏 Wei Hong
勸學篇 Quanxuepian (Han) 蔡邕 Cai Yong
聖皇篇 以上合一卷 Shenghuangpian (Han) 蔡邕 Cai Yong
通俗文 Tongsuwen (Han) 服虔 Fu Qian
埤倉 Picang (Wei) 張揖 Zhang Yi
古今字詁 Gujin zigu (Wei) 張揖 Zhang Yi
雜字 以上合一卷 Zazi (Wei) 張揖 Zhang Yi
聲類 Shenglei (Wei) 李登 Li Deng
辨釋名 Bian shiming (Wu) 韋昭 Wei Zhao
韻集 以上合一卷 Yunji (Jin) 呂靜 Lü Jing
難字解詁 Nanzi jiegu (Wei) 周成 Zhou Cheng
周成難字 Zhou Cheng Nanzi (Wei) 周成 Zhou Cheng
小學篇 Xiaoxuepian (Jin) 王義 Wang Yi
字苑 Ziyuan (Jin) 葛洪 Ge Hong
字指 Zizhi (Jin) 李彤 Li Tong
音譜 以上合一卷 Yinpu (Liu-Song) 李槩 Li Gai
纂文 Zuanwen (Liu-Song) 何承天 He Chengtian
纂要 Zuanyao (Liang) 蕭繹 Xiao Yi (梁元帝 Emperor Liang Yuandi)
文字集略 Wenzi jilüe (Liang) 阮孝緒 Ruan Xiaoxu
字略 Zilüe (Later Wei) 宋世良 Song Shiliang
廣倉 以上合一卷 Guangcang (Later Wei) 樊恭 Fan Gong
字統 Zitong (Later Wei) 楊承慶 Yang Chengqing
韻略 Yunlüe (Northern Qi) 陽休之 Yang Xiuzhi
證俗音 Zhengsuyin (Northern Qi) 顔之推 Yan Zhitui
文字指歸 Wenzi zhigui (Sui) 曹憲 Cao Xian
切韻 以上合一卷 Qieyun (Sui) 陸法言 Lu Fayan
字書 二卷 Zishu () NN
字體 Ziti () NN
異字苑 Yiziyuan () NN
字類 Zilei () NN
字諟 Zishi () NN
古今字音 Gujin ziyin () NN
聲譜 Shengpu () NN
證俗文 Zhengsuwen () NN
異字音 以上合一卷 Yiziyin () NN
Table 2. The series Xiaoxue gouchen xubian 小學鉤沉小學鉤沉續編
(Qing) 顧震福 Gu Zhenfu (comp.)

1891 edition by Master Gu form Shanyang 山陽顧氏(顧震福)
書名, length in juan Title Author(s)
倉頡篇 Cangjiepian (Qin) NN
倉頡解詁 Cangjie jiegu (Qin) NN
三倉 Sancang (Qin) NN
三倉解詁 Sancang jiegu (Jin) 郭憲 Guo Xian
凡將篇 Fanjiangpian (Han) 司馬相如 Sima Xiangru
古文官書 Gu wenguan shu (Han) 衛宏 Wei Hong
古文奇字 Guwen qizi () NN
勸學篇 Quanxuepian (Han) 蔡邕 Cai Yong
聖皇篇 Shenghuangpian (Wei) 曹植 Cao Zhi
通俗文 以上合一卷 Tongsuwen (Han) 服虔 Fu Qian
埤倉 一卷 Picang (Wei) 張揖 Zhang Yi
古今字詁 Gujin zigu (Wei) 張揖 Zhang Yi
聲類 Shenglei (Wei) 李登 Li Deng
辨釋名 Bian shiming (Wu) 魏昭 Wei Zhao
韻集 Yunji (Jin) 呂靜 Lü Jing
難字解詁 Nanzi jiegu (Wei) 周成 Zhou Cheng
周成難字 Zhou Cheng Nanzi (Wei) 周成 Zhou Cheng
小學篇 以上合一卷 Xiaoxuepian (Jin) 王義 Wang Yi
字苑 Ziyuan (Jin) 葛洪 Ge Hong
字指 Zizhi (Jin) 李彤 Li Tong
音譜 Yinpu (Liu-Song) 李槩 Li Gai
纂文 Zuanwen (Liu-Song) 何承天 He Chengtian
纂要 Zuanyao (Liang) 蕭繹 Xiao Yi (梁元帝 Emperor Liang Yuandi)
文字輯略 Wenzi jilüe (Liang) 阮孝緒 Ruan Xiaoxu
字略 以上合一卷 Zilüe (Later Wei) 宋世良 Song Shiliang
廣倉 Guangcang (Later Wei) 樊恭 Fan Gong
字統 Zitong (Later Wei) 楊承慶 Yang Chengqing
韻略 Yunlüe (Northern Qi) 陽休之 Yang Xiuzhi
證俗音 Zhengsuyin (Northern Qi) 顔之推 Yan Zhitui
文字指歸 Wenzi zhigui (Sui) 曹憲 Cao Xian
陸詞切韻 (切韻) Lu Ci Qieyun (Qieyun) (Sui) 陸法言 Lu Fayan
切韻 (唐韻) Qieyun (Tangyun) (Tang) 孫愐 Sun Mian
均韻 Junyun (Tang) 郭知玄 Guo Zhixuan
切韻 Qieyun (Tang) 王仁煦 Wang Renxu
切韻 Qieyun (Tang) 祝尚邱 Zhu Shangqiu
東宮切韻 Donggong qieyun (Tōgū setsu'in) (Japan) 菅原是善 Sugawara no Koreyoshi
釋氏切韻 Shishi qieyun (Tang) NN
切韻 Qieyun (Tang) 裴務齊 Pei Wuqi
切韻 Qieyun (Tang) 麻果 Ma Guo
切韻 Qieyun (Tang) 李審言 Li Shenyan
切韻 Qieyun (Tang) 蔣魴 Jiang Fang
切韻 以上合一卷 Qieyun (Tang) NN
字書 三卷 Zishu () NN
字體 Ziti () NN
異字苑 Yiziyuan () NN
字類 Zilei () NN
字諟 Zishi () NN
聲譜 以上合一卷 Shengpu () NN
(附)補遺 一卷 app. Buyi () NN
Sources:
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 822-823.
Shanghai tushuguan 上海圖書館, ed. (1982). Zhongguo congshu zonglu 中國叢書綜錄 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe), Vol. 1, 621-622.